Underground platforms are part of a mature ecosystem for trading cybercrime goods and services. How does a capable hosting infrastructure allow illicit activities to thrive? Criminal sellers provide services and infrastructures that other criminals need to execute their attacks. An underground hosting service or underground infrastructure enables threat actors to harbor cybercriminal components and carry out their malicious activities undisrupted by takedowns or arrests, which usually require intervention by service providers. An underground hosting service can include the provision of hosting infrastructures, domain name provisions, fast-flux infrastructures, traffic accelerators, virtual and dedicated servers, and virtual private networks VPNs. Hosted infrastructures are also used to send phishing emails, trade illegal goods on online shops, and host virtual private systems VPS that can be used to launch attacks from. Hosting services allow users to bypass internet restrictions, maintain anonymity, and make forensics tricky. Underground platforms offer a wide range of services that cater to criminal hackers, from bulletproof hosting and proxies to VPSs and VPNs. Interestingly, such services were also observed on forums related to online betting, online marketing, and search engine optimization SEO — the services can be used to produce clicks that can influence search engine behavior. We also found chat groups in online messenger platforms like VK, Telegram, and WhatsApp that were used to advertise the abovementioned services.
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Secure your internet
A common method to expose VPN traffic is to compromise the server that handles your traffic. This risk is particularly acute for servers located in high-risk jurisdictions. If an attacker can get control of the VPN server, or monitor the network of the server, they will be able to match VPN clients with their traffic, nullifying the privacy benefits of the VPN. Therefore, even though ProtonVPN is based in Switzerland, we cannot be certain that authorities are not monitoring our VPN servers located in those high-risk countries. Secure Core allows us to defend against this threat to VPN privacy by passing user traffic through multiple servers. When you connect to a server in a high-risk jurisdiction like the US, your traffic will first go through our Secure Core servers. Therefore, even if an attacker monitors our servers in the US, they would only be able to follow the traffic back to the edge of our Secure Core network, thus making it far more difficult to discover the true IP address and location of ProtonVPN users.
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